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Peer-Reviewed Publications:

50. Smith, W.L. 2016. Perciformes: Trachinoidei: Uranoscopidae. Pages 2786–2792, In: The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4.  Carpenter, K.E. and De Angelis, N. (eds.). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, FAO.

49. Smith, W.L. 2016. Perciformes: Trachinoidei: Trachinidae. Pages 2769–2779, In: The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4.  Carpenter, K.E. and De Angelis, N. (eds.). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, FAO.

48. Smith, W.L. 2016. Perciformes: Trachinoidei: Pinguipedidae. Pages 2767–2768, In: The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4.  Carpenter, K.E. and De Angelis, N. (eds.). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, FAO.

47. Smith, W.L. 2016. Perciformes: Trachinoidei: Chiasmodontidae. Pages 2764–2766, In: The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4.  Carpenter, K.E. and De Angelis, N. (eds.). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, FAO.

46. Smith, W.L., Stern, J.H., Girard, M.G., and Davis, M.P. 2016. Evolution of venomous cartilaginous and ray-finned fishes. Integrative and Comparative Biology 56:doi: 10.1093/icb/icw070

July 13, 2016 - Agata Blaszczak-Boxe, LiveScience, "Fish venom unveiled: Toxins evolved many times, study shows."
July 6, 2016 - Enrico de Lazaro, Sci-News, "Study finds venom has evolved 18 times in marine and freshwater fishes."
July 5, 2016 - Brooks Hays, UPI, "Study: Venomous fish could be repository of medicinal compounds."

45. Davis, M.P., Sparks, J.S., and Smith, W.L. 2016. Repeated and widespread evolution of bioluminescence in marine fishes. PLOS ONE 11:e0155154.

Popular Press:

June 15, 2016 - Annalee Newitz, Ars Technica, "Evolution favors the bioluminescent."
June 10, 2016 - Shivali Best, The Daily Mall, "Glow-in-the-dark fish are more common than thought: Bioluminescence is so useful in oceans it evolved 27 times."
June 10, 2016 - Deborah Netburn, Los Angeles Times, "Bioluminescence is so useful to fish that it evolved 27 times, study says."
June 9, 2016 - Meghan Kuhr, Newsweek,  "Bioluminescence is spreading to new fish species."
June 9, 2016 - Tanya Lewis, The Scientist,  "Evolution of fish bioluminescence."
June 9, 2016 - Joesph Scalise, Science Recorder, "Bioluminescence more common than previously believed."
June 8, 2016 - Ed Yong, National Geographic, "Surprising history of glowing fish."
June 8, 2016 - Chelsea Harvey, Mashable, "There are far more glowing fish in the sea than previously known."
June 8, 2016 - Rachel Nuwer, Smithsonian Magazine,  "Way more fish can make their own light than we thought."
June 8, 2016 - Mary Bates, PLOS Ecology Community, "The oceans are aglow with light-up fishes."
June 8, 2016 - Mindy Weisberger, Live Science. "Flash mob! Glowing in fishes more widespread than thought."
June 8, 2016 - Rachel Feltman,  The Washington Post, "Glow-in-the-dark fish have evolved over and over again."
June 8, 2016 - Claudia Sierra, Pulse Headlines,  "Glowing deep ocean fishes have evolved at least 27 times."
June 8, 2016 - Brendan Lynch, KU Today "New research shines light on surprising numbers and evolutionary variety of bioluminescent ocean fishes."

44. Gruber, D.F., Loew, E.R., Deheyn, D.D., Akkaynak, D., Gaffney, J.P., Smith, W.L., Davis, M.P., Stern, J.H., Pieribone, V.A., and Sparks, J.S. 2016. Biofluorescence in catsharks (Scyliorhinidae): Fundamental description and relevance for elasmobranch visual ecology. Nature: Scientific Reports 6:24751.

Popular Press:

April 25, 2016 - Brian Clark Howard, National Geographic, "Through a shark's eyes: See how they glow in the deep"
April 25, 2016 - Elizabeth Preston, The Atlantic, "Scientists have developed shark vision"
April 25, 2016 - Monika Auger, Wall Street Journal, "Scientists develop camera with shark vision"
April 25, 2016 - Max James, Dive Magazine, UK, "Why do elasmobranchs glow in the dark"
April 25, 2016 - Brooks Hays, UPI, "'Shark-eye' cam captures biofluorescence of catsharks"
April 25, 2016 - Alexandra Ossola, Popular Science, "Sharks glow, but only for each other"

43. Smith, W.L., and Busby, M.S. 2014. Phylogeny and taxonomy of sculpins, sandfishes, and snailfishes (Perciformes: Cottoidei) with comments on the phylogenetic significance of their early-life-history specializations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 79:332–352.

42. Price, S.A., Schmitz, L., Oufiero, C.E., Eytan, R.I., Dornburg, A., Smith, W.L., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Wainwright, P.C. 2014. Two waves of colonization straddling the K–Pg boundary formed the modern reef fish fauna. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 281:20140321.

Popular Press:
April 11, 2014 - Mark Prigg, The Daily Mail, "Finding Nemo 50 million years ago: Researchers say reefs and their fish were almost identical to today's far earlier than thought"
April 2, 2014 - Colin Barass, The New Scientist, "Dino-killing asteroid cleared way for modern reef fish"

41. Stewart, T.A., Smith, W.L., and Coates, M.I. 2014. The origins of adipose fins: An analysis of homoplasy and the serial homology of vertebrate appendages. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 281:20133120.

Popular Press:
March 10, 2014 - Sedeer el-Showk, Nature, Accumulating Glitches, "The evolution of adipose fins"
March 5, 2014 - Geoffrey Mohan, Los Angeles Times, Science Now, "Overlooked fish fin stirs the waters of evolution"
March 5, 2014 - Red Orbit, "Adipose fins evolve repeatedly In teleost fishes"
March 5, 2014 - Rina Shaikh-Lesko, The Scientist, "Convergent fish fins"

40. Davis, M.P., Holcroft, N.I., Wiley, E.O., Sparks, J.S., and Smith, W.L. 2014. Species-specific bioluminescence facilitates speciation in the deep sea. Marine Biology 161:1139–1148.

Popular Press:
May 1, 2014 - Ashley Braun, Natural History, "Lover’s Lure?"
March 5, 2014 - e! Science News, "Distinctive flashing patterns might facilitate fish mating"
March 4, 2014 - Rina Shaikh-Lesko, The Scientist, "Flashy deep sea fish"
March 3, 2014 - James A. Foley, Nature World News, "Bioluminescence in deep-sea fishes breeds species diversity"

38. McMahan, C.D., Chakrabarty, P., Sparks, J.S., Smith, W.L., and Davis, M.P. 2013. Temporal patterns of diversification across global cichlid biodiversity (Acanthomorpha: Cichlidae). PLOS ONE 8:e71162.

37. Near, T.J., Dornburg, A., Eytan, R.I., Keck, B.P., Smith, W.L., Kuhn, K.L., Moore, J.A., Price, S.A., Burbrink, F.T., Friedman, M., and Wainwright, P.C. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:12738–12743.

Popular Press:
July 17, 2013 - Yale University,, "From flounders to seahorses: Evolutionary success of spiny-rayed fishes detailed"

36. Borden, W.C., Grande, T., and Smith, W.L. 2013. Comparative osteology and myology of the caudal fin in the Paracanthopterygii (Teleostei: Acanthomorpha). Pages 419–455, In: Mesozoic Fishes 5–Global Diversity and Evolution. Arratia, G., Schultze, H.-P., and Wilson, M.V.H. (eds.). Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany.

35. Grande, T., Borden, W.C., and Smith, W.L. 2013. Limits and relationships of Paracanthopterygii: A molecular framework for evaluating past morphological hypotheses. Pages 385–418, In: Mesozoic Fishes 5–Global Diversity and Evolution. Arratia, G., Schultze, H.-P., and Wilson, M.V.H. (eds.). Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany.

34. Dikow, R.B. and Smith, W.L. 2013. Complete genome sequences provide a case study for the evaluation of gene-tree thinking. Cladistics 29:672–682.

33. Dikow, R.B. and Smith, W.L. 2013. Genome-level homology and phylogeny of Vibrionaceae (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionales) with three new complete genome sequences. BMC Microbiology 13:80.

32. Miller, J., Dikow, T., Agosti, D., Sautter, G., Catapano, T., Penev, L., Zhang, Z.Q., Pentcheff, D., Pyle, R., Blum, S.D., Parr, C., Freeland, C., Garnett, T., Ford, L.S., Muller, B., Smith, W.L., Strader, G., Georgiev, T., and Bénichou, L. 2012. From taxonomic literature to cybertaxonomic content. BMC Biology 10:87.

31. Wainwright, P.C., Smith, W.L., Price, S.A., Tang, K.L., Sparks, J.S., Ferry, L.A., Kuhn, K.L., Eytan, R.I., and Near, T.J. 2012. The evolution of pharyngognathy: A phylogenetic and functional appraisal of the pharyngeal jaw key innovation in labroid fishes and beyond. Systematic Biology 61:1001–1027.

30. Near, T.J., Eytan, R.I., Dornburg, A., Kuhn, K.L., Moore, J.A., Davis, M.P., Wainwright, P.C., Friedman, M., and Smith, W.L. 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109:13698–13703.

Popular Press:
August 8, 2012 - Natalia Real, Fishbio, Fisheries Research, Monitoring, and Conservation, "Ray-finned fishes get new family tree"

29. Near, T.J., Sandel, M., Kuhn, K.L., Unmack, P.J., Wainwright, P.C., and Smith, W.L. 2012. Nuclear gene-inferred phylogenies resolve the relationships of the enigmatic Pygmy Sunfishes, Elassoma (Teleostei: Percomorpha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63:388–395.

28. Wiley, E.O., Chakrabarty, P., Craig, M.T., Davis, M.P., Holcroft, N.I., Mayden, R.L., and Smith, W.L. 2011. A response to Mooi, Williams and Gill. Zootaxa 2946:33–37.

27. Wiley, E.O., Chakrabarty, P., Craig, M.T., Davis, M.P., Holcroft, N.I., Mayden, R.L., and Smith, W.L. 2011. Will the real phylogeneticists please stand up? Zootaxa 2946:7–16.

26. Li, C., Betancur-R., R., Smith, W.L., and Ortí, G. 2011. Monophyly and interrelationships of Snook and Barramundi (Centropomidae sensu Greenwood) and five new markers for fish phylogenetics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60:463–471.

25. Chakrabarty, P., Davis, M.P., Smith, W.L., Baldwin, Z.H. and Sparks, J.S. 2011. Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)? Molecular Ecology 20:2818–2834.

24. Chakrabarty, P., Davis, M.P., Smith, W.L., Berquist, R., Gledhill, K. M., Frank, L. R., and Sparks, J.S. 2011. Evolution of the light organ system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae). Journal of Morphology 272:704–721.

23. Smith, W.L. 2010. Promoting resolution of the percomorph bush: A reply to Mooi and Gill. Copeia 2010:520–524.

22. Jones, C.C., Smith, W.L., and Sparks. J.S. 2010. A new species of rainbowfish (Teleostei: Melanotaenioidei: Bedotiidae) from the Makira Region of northeastern Madagascar. Copeia 2010:284–291.

Popular Press:
June 22, 2010 - Heok Hee Ng, Practical Fishkeeping, "New species of Bedotia rainbowfish described"

21. Smith, W.L., Smith, K.R., and Wheeler, W.C. 2009. Novel mitochondrial intergenic spacer in fairy basslets (Serranidae: Anthiinae) and the simultaneous analysis of nucleotide and genomic data. American Museum Novitates 3652:1–10.

20. Smith, W.L., Chakrabarty, P, and Sparks, J.S. 2008. Phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolution of Neotropical cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Cichlinae). Cladistics 24:1–17. [Lead Article]

19. Smith, W.L. and Sparks, J.S. 2007. Case 3383: Gobius lagocephalus: Pallas 1770 (currently Sicyopterus lagocephalus: Teleostei, Gobiidae): Proposed suppression of the specific name. Bulletin of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 64:103–107.

18. Smith, W.L. and Craig, M.T. 2007. Casting the percomorph net widely: The importance of broad taxonomic sampling in the search for the placement of serranid and percid fishes. Copeia 2007:35–55.

17. Smith, W.L. and Sparks, J.S. 2006. Sicyopterus lagocephalus: The world's most widespread nomen dubium. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43:696–698.

16. Wheeler, W.C., Aagesen, L., Arango, C.P., Faivovich, J., Grant, T., D’Haese, C., Janies, D., Smith, W.L., Varon, A., and Giribet, G. 2006. Dynamic Homology and Phylogenetic Systematics: A Unified Approach Using POY. American Museum of Natural History, New York. ISBN 0-913424-58.7.

15. Webb, J.F, Smith, W.L., and Ketten D.R. 2006. The laterophysic connection and swim bladder of butterflyfishes in the genus Chaetodon (Perciformes: Chaetodontidae). Journal of Morphology 267:1338–1355.

14. Sparks, J.S. and Smith, W.L. 2006. Sicyopterus lagocephalus: Widespread species, species complex, or neither? A critique on the use of molecular data for species identification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:900–902.

13. Smith, W.L. and Wheeler, W.C. 2006. Venom evolution widespread in fishes: A road map for the bioprospecting of piscine venoms. Journal of Heredity 97:206–217.

Popular Press:
October 12, 2006 - Bob Hirshhorn, AAAS Science Update "Venomous fish" 
September 18, 2006 - Newsweek – Perspectives
September 12, 2006 – Patricia Chargot, Detroit Free Press "Yakking about stingrays and their dangers"
September 2, 2006 – Saturday Today in New York Feature, WNBC New York City "Venomous fishes"
September 1, 2006 - Brian Handwerk, National Geographic News "Venomous fish far outnumber snakes, other vertebrates, study says"
August 23, 2006 - Emily Masamitsu, Popular Mechanics Science News "Ocean venom: List of poisonous fish grows by factor of six"
August 23, 2006 - Robert Roy Britt, "Study: Venomous fish outnumber snakes"
August 22, 2006 - Denise Grady, New York Times, Cover and Science Times Feature, "Venom runs thick in fish families, researchers learn"
August 22, 2006 - Denise Grady and Emily B. Hager, New York Times Video "Venom that swims"
August 22, 2006 - David Corcoran, New York Times Science Times Podcast, "The psychology of fame, venomous fishes, and compensatory growth"
August 1, 2006 – Matt Clarke, Practical Fishkeeping “Venoms widespread in fishes”

12. Sparks, J.S., Dunlap, P.V., and Smith, W.L. 2005. Evolution and diversification of a sexually dimorphic luminescent system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae), including diagnoses for two new genera. Cladistics 21:305–327. [Cover Article]

11. Sparks, J.S. and Smith, W.L. 2005. Freshwater fishes, dispersal ability, and non-evidence: “Gondwana life rafts” to the rescue. Systematic Biology 54:158–165.

10. Sparks, J.S. and Smith, W.L. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae). Cladistics 20:501–517. [Cover Article]

9. Greenfield, D.W. and Smith, W.L. 2004. Allenbatrachus meridionalis, a new toadfish (Batrachoididae) from Madagascar and Reunion. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 55:570–574.

8. Sparks, J.S. and Smith, W.L. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Malagasy and Australasian rainbowfishes (Teleostei: Melanotaenioidei): Gondwanan vicariance and evolution in freshwater. Molecular Phylologenetics and Evolution 33: 719–734.

Popular Press:
November 1, 2004 – Matt Clarke, Practical Fishkeeping “New phylogeny reveals rainbowfish relationships”

7. Smith, W.L. and Wheeler, W.C. 2004. Polyphyly of the mail-cheeked fishes (Teleostei: Scorpaeniformes): Evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32:627–646.

6. Rosenblatt, R.H. and Smith, W.L. 2004. Icelinus limbaughi, a new species of sculpin (Teleostei: Cottidae) from southern California. Copeia 2004:556–561.

5. Smith, W.L., Webb, J.F., and Blum, S.D. 2003. The evolution and phylogenetic significance of the laterophysic connection with a revised phylogeny and classification of butterflyfishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae). Cladistics 19:287–306. [Cover Article]

4. Smith, W.L. 2003. Scorpaeniformes I: Gurnards and flatheads. Pages 157–162, In: Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia: Fishes Volume 2. Thoney, D., Loiselle, P., and Schlager, N. (eds.). The Gale Group, Farmington Hills, MI.

3. Smith, W.L. 2003. Scorpaeniformes II: Scorpionfishes and relatives. Pages 163–178, In: Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia: Fishes Volume 2. Thoney, D., Loiselle, P., and Schlager, N. (eds.). The Gale Group, Farmington Hills, MI.

2. Webb, J.F. and Smith, W.L. 2000. The laterophysic connection in chaetodontid butterfly-fishes: Morphological variation and speculations on sensory function. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 355:1125–1129.

1. Baldwin, C.C. and Smith, W.L. 1998. Belonoperca pylei, a new species of seabass (Teleostei: Serranidae: Epinephelinae: Diploprionini) from the Cook Islands with comments on relationships among diploprionins. Ichthyological Research 45: 325–339. [Lead Article]

Popular Publications:

1. Smith, W.L. 1996. Oarfish: A glimpse into the abyss. Ocean Realm 2:28–29. [Press Coverage]

Popular Press:
June 1, 1997 – Andrea Strickley, Dive Travel "24 feet of fish: Sea monsters rise from the depths"
September 27, 1996 – Terry Rodgers, San Diego Union Tribune "Fearsome 23-foot fish is long on appeal to scientists"

University of Kansas, Biodiversity Institute, 1345 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66045; 785.864.6874 ©2016 W.L. Smith